Archive for the ‘Economics’ Category

A History of U. S. Coinage

History_Of_US_Coinage      <— pdf

Dear Readers:

The attached pdf file describes the history of coinage in the U. S. since 1791.  “Coinage” here means gold, silver and copper coins (referred to as “minor coin”).  Although Congress authorized coinage of money in 1791, none was actually coined until 1793.  The dollar was defined as a weight of silver, and was changed at various times in the 1800’s.  The dollar was defined de facto as a weight of gold in 1879, and formalized in 1900.  In 1933, the dollar was separated from gold, and became a fiat currency domestically, although was technically still defined as a weight of gold.  Silver was removed from U. S. coinage in 1965, and since then all our coins consist of nickel, zinc, and trace amounts of copper.

All the data in these charts are from my recent book “The Control and Manipulation of Money”, available for free download at https://fremontvalleybooks.com

The book also contains a complete history of monetary legislation, bank condition statements, descriptions of the various banking systems, as well as a tutorial on free-enterprise economics.  I hope you will find it informative.

Thanks for reading,

Ed Duvall

Posted in Early American history, Economics, U. S. money supply | Comments Off on A History of U. S. Coinage

A Standard of Living Index in the U. S.

Standard Of LivingIndex   <– pdf

Dear readers:

I have defined a standard of living index (SLI) as the ratio of median family income index (MII) to consumer price index (CPI).  It is intended as a crude metric for determining if the standard of living is nominally increasing or decreasing.  Please note that it applies to urban families, all occupations, and all races per official U. S. government statistics.

The enclosed pdf shows the data in the U. S. from 1800 to 2020.  All the indices are referenced to the year 1913 (=100).  See my book “The Control and Manipulation of Money”, pp. 175 ff for more details on how the income indices and consumer price indices were developed.  It is available for free download at https://fremontvalleybooks.com.

Thanks for reading,

EDD

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Posted in consumer price index, Economics, standard of living index | Comments Off on A Standard of Living Index in the U. S.

The Origin of the Bank of England

The Origin Of The Bank Of England   <– PDF

Dear readers:

The enclosed PDF describes the origin of the Bank of England.  It’s main purpose was to fund England’s foreign wars and to promote a steadily growing public debt.  The same pattern prevails with the U. S. Federal Reserve.

Thanks for reading,

EDD

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Posted in Economics, national debt | No Comments »

The Continentals of the American Revolution

History Of The Continentals  <—  PDF

Dear readers:

The enclosed PDF contains a history of the Continental money issued by Congress during the American Revolution.  It is chapter 7 from my new book, “The Control and Manipulation of Money”, available for free download at https://fremontvalleybooks.com

Thanks,

EDD

 

 

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Posted in American colonies, Congress, Early American history, Economics, Revolutionary War, U. S. money supply | No Comments »