Archive for the ‘U. S. Constitution’ Category

Real World Graduation: Question 42: Political Promises

RealWorldGraduation_Question_42_Political_Promises   <– PDF

During the Presidential election campaign of 1988, George H. W. Bush stated, “Read my lips, no new taxes”.   He was subsequently elected as the 41st President of the U. S.  What did this statement mean regarding his intended tax policy as President?

a) He would never raise income taxes if elected President.

b) Since he said “read my lips”, the statement was directed only at deaf people; so he meant that he would not raise income taxes on deaf people.

c) “No new taxes” means he would not create any new category of taxes.

d) Every tax must be paid every year, therefore all taxes are “new”; thus this statement means he was going to eliminate all federal taxes.

e) A combination of a) and c).

(The answer is on p. 2 of the PDF.)

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Posted in critical thinking, elections, government powers, Real World Graduation, U. S. Constitution | No Comments »

Real World Graduation: Question 39

RealWorldGraduation_Question_39   <– PDF

Media outlets such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television are important sources of news and information to the voters. Because the success of a democratic republic requires voters to be well-informed, it is important for the media to report on issues in a truthful manner.  The First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution states that “Congress shall make no law … abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press…”.   This means that the government is bound in principle, and the officers of the government are bound by oath, to recognize the pre-existing right of the media to be immune to governmental interference; that is, the media themselves are free to develop their own standards for accuracy in their reporting.  Because there is no formal system or standardization imposed by the government, what standard have the media imposed on themselves?  This question does not apply to the internet.

a) Media outlets are prohibited from reporting facts, even in news stories.

b) Media outlets are prohibited from expressing any opinions or biases by reporters, management, or editors. The only opinions that are allowed are those of readers in “Letters to the Editor” or by viewer emails in the case of radio and television.

c) When reporting “news”, the media reports only the facts. The media outlet may be biased in their opinions, but those opinions are reserved solely to portions of articles or broadcast segments clearly labeled as “Opinion” or “Editorial”.

d) Opinions of reporters and editors reflecting their personal biases are allowed within news stories, but are segregated in their own section, and clearly labeled as “opinion”.

e) Although the exact practice varies from state to state, and from market to market, nearly every media outlet has adopted either c) or d) as an informal standard.

(The answer is on p. 2 of the pdf.)

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Posted in Bill of Rights, critical thinking, First Amendment, Real World Graduation, U. S. Constitution | No Comments »

Real World Graduation: Question 29

RealWorldGraduation_Question_29   <– PDF

Article 2, Section 1 of the U. S. Constitution requires the President to take the following oath of office:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States”.

An integral part of preserving, protecting, and defending the Constitution is preserving the rights of the people. The rights of individuals specifically called out in the Constitution and its first ten amendments are:

1) Habeas corpus (right to challenge detainment)

2) Freedom of speech

3) Freedom of the press

4) Freedom of religion

5) Freedom to keep and bear arms

6) Freedom from bearing the expense of quartering soldiers

7) Freedom from arbitrary search and seizure (searches require warrants signed by a judge, with testimony under oath by the officials seeking the warrant)

8) Federal indictment only by grand jury

9) No double jeopardy (a person can only be tried once for the same crime)

10) Immunity from self-incrimination

11) Due process of law

12) Compensation for property allocated for public use

13) Speedy and public trial

14) Cross-examination of witnesses in criminal trials

15) Counsel for defense in criminal trials

16) Trial by jury

17) Facts found by a jury not reviewable by a court

18) Prohibition of excessive bail

19) Prohibition of excessive fines

20) Prohibition of cruel and unusual punishments.

Also, rights not specifically mentioned are reserved to the people (individuals) or to the states. Based on your understanding of American history, which three would you rate as the worst Presidents with regard to preserving the rights of the people?  The letter after their name indicates their part affiliation (F refers to Federalist, R indicates Republican, N indicates None, D indicates Democrat, D-R indicates Democrat-Republican, which later became the Democratic Party in the 1820’s).

a) Alexander Hamilton (F), Aaron Burr (F), and Benjamin Franklin (F)

b) Richard M. Nixon (R), Gerald R. Ford (R), and George Washington (N)

c) George H. W. Bush (41) (R), James E. Carter (D), and Thomas Jefferson (D-R)

d) Walter Mondale (D), Barry Goldwater (R), and Alf Landon (R)

e) Three among those listed in groups b) and c)

(The answer is on p. 2 of the PDF.)

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Posted in Benjamin Franklin, Bill of Rights, critical thinking, fifth amendment, First Amendment, fourth amendment, government powers, habeas corpus, Real World Graduation, Second Amendment, sixth amendment, U. S. Constitution | No Comments »

Real World Graduation: Question 25

RealWorldGraduation_Question_25   <– PDF

Which of these are phrases found in the Constitution of the United States of America?

a) “… separation of church and state…”

b) “… government shall have the right …”

c) “… people shall be entitled to general welfare …”

d) “… right to rest and leisure …”

e) Both a) and c)

(The answer is shown on p. 2 of the PDF.)

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Posted in critical thinking, government powers, Real World Graduation, U. S. Constitution | No Comments »